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Chapter 3. Patterns of Occurrence

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Which of the following attributes is NOT typically used to characterize who gets a disease?

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A. Sex

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B. HLA type

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C. Race

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D. Age

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Persons born in the same year are referred to as

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A. a birth cohort.

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B. gestational peers.

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C. conception cohort.

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D. none of the above.

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For a genetic disease, when persons from a high-risk country migrate to a low-risk country, we expect their risk of disease to

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A. decrease.

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B. increase.

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C. remain unchanged.

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D. vary based on age at migration.

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For an environmentally determined disease, when persons migrate from a high-risk country to a low-risk country, we expect their risk of disease to

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A. decrease.

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B. increase.

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C. remain unchanged.

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D. be similar to their children’s risk.

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In an ecologic study of cell phone use and incidence of brain cancer, the coefficient of determination is found to be 0.3. This suggests that

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A. cell phone use accounts for most of the variation in risk of brain cancer.

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B. cell phone use is a cause of brain cancer.

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C. cell phone use has no association with risk of brain cancer.

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D. cell phone use accounts for about a third of the variation in brain cancer risk.

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In an ecologic study of dietary folate intake and risk of neural tube defects, the correlation coefficient was -0.86. This means that

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A. high dietary folate intake is associated with a higher risk of neural tube defects.

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B. high dietary folate intake is associated with a lower risk of neural tube defects.

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C. there is no association between dietary folate intake and neural tube defects.

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D. dietary folate intake causes neural tube defects.

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