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Chapter 11. Comparative Effectiveness

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Which of the following is NOT an example of comparative effectiveness research?

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A. An observational study using propensity matching

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B. A meta-analysis

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C. An efficacy-based randomized control trial

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D. A decision tree–based analytical study

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What is one of the weaknesses related to meta-analyses?

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A. They combine information from across multiple studies

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B. Most of the data available will be efficacy data, not data on effectiveness

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C. Similar endpoints from multiple studies are used to generate a combined effect size

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D. They are not well accepted

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Which of these is NOT a strength of observational studies?

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A. Their longitudinal nature or ability for researchers to follow patients over very long periods of time that are most often contiguous

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B. Their ready availability at little expense

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C. Their ability to control for selection bias with randomization of subjects

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D. Their ability to answer research questions that cannot be answered with RCTs such as effects of changes in policy or clinical practice

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A stochastic decision analysis model is

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A. A statistical approaches used to analyzed data to identify patterns of relationships between variables and to test hypotheses.

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B. Mathematical structures that are used to link evidence from multiple sources to predict outcomes such as effectiveness, costs, or cost effectiveness often over a long time period.

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C. A method used to control selection bias.

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D. A way to assess the efficacy of treatment effect in clinical trials.

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Which of these is NOT a type of propensity score method?

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A. Matching

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B. Stratification

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C. Weighting

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D. Randomization

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What is selection bias?

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A. A systematic error that can affect the integrity of a study (internal validity), causing some members of the population to be less likely to be included than others in the study sample

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