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Chapter 13. Assessing Evidence

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All of the following would be considered providing low quality of evidence EXCEPT

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A. RCTs with major limitations.

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B. case reports of clinical observations.

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C. physiological measurement studies.

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D. well-designed, well-executed observational studies.

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E. none of the above.

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Which of the following types of studies typically is considered to provide the strongest quality of evidence?

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A. Well-designed, well-executed nonrandomized intervention studies

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B. Well-designed, well-executed randomized intervention studies

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C. Well-designed, well-executed observational studies

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D. Well-designed, well-executed case series

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E. Well-designed, well-executed physiological measurement studies

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Which of the following associations is an example in which the results of observational studies and RCTs reached differing conclusions?

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A. Cholesterol reduction and lowered risk of recurrent MIs

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B. Hypertension control and reduced risk of stroke

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C. Hormone replacement therapy and reduced risk of cardiovascular disease

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D. Aspirin use and reduced risk of cardiovascular disease

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E. Blood glucose control and reduced risk of complications of diabetes mellitus

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The IOM’s “best practice” standards for developing evidence-based clinical guidelines include all of the following EXCEPT

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A. use of a systematic review.

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B. consideration of patient subgroups and preferences.

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C. a process to minimize biases.

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D. ratings of the quality of the evidence.

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E. none of the above.

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A study with highly restrictive inclusion criteria is likely to be limited with respect to

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A. internal validity.

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B. face validity.

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C. ecologic validity.

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D. external validity.

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E. construct validity.

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Which of the following study designs is LEAST susceptible to the potential distortion from confounding?

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A. An RCT

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B. A correlation (ecologic) study

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