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Chapter 14. Quantitative Systematic Review

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Is it appropriate to summarize available evidence when study designs, populations, treatments or interventions, exposures, and outcomes of the studies included in the systematic review are not similar?

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A. No

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B. Yes, if the heterogeneity test is not significant

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C. Yes, independently of the heterogeneity test is not significant

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D. It depends on the number of studies considered in the meta-analysis

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What should be considered in determining the search strategy for a meta-analysis?

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A. The time that it will take to read the manuscripts identified from the search

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B. The study hypothesis and number of possible studies that the search will return

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C. The study hypothesis, research questions, and the database in which the search is to be conducted

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D. The research questions and the number of possible studies that the search will return

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Can a meta-analysis be limited to non-RCTs studies only?

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A. Yes, if published non-RCTs have similar methods, sound findings and report adjusted results, and all published RCTs evidence suffer from evident methodologic problems or their study designs and method vary significantly

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B. No

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C. It depends on the number of studies included in the meta-analysis

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D. Yes, independently of the non-RCTs’ methods and whether RCT evidence is available

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Why it is critical to assess the risk of bias of the evidence considered in a meta-analysis?

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A. Study analysis will be easier

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B. Studies suffering from bias are difficult to understand

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C. The sensitivity analysis will be easier

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D. To ensure that the meta-analysis has good internal and external validity

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Dr. F. is executing a meta-analysis, and he is uncertain on whether he can use a fixed-effect model to estimate the overall effect. In which of the following scenarios is it appropriate to use a fixed-effect model?

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A. The intervention effect is similar (in both magnitude and direction) across studies, but the study designs and methods are very different

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B. The intervention effect is similar (in both magnitude and direction) ...

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