Skip to Main Content

++

Chapter 2. Principles of Toxicology

++
++
++

Five identical experimental animals are treated with 1 mg of one of the following toxins. The animal treated with which toxin is most likely to die?

+
+
++

a. ethyl alcohol (LD50 = 10,000 mg/kg).

+
++

b. botulinum toxin (LD50 = 0.00001 mg/kg).

+
++

c. nicotine (LD50 = 1 mg/kg).

+
++

d. ferrous sulfate (LD50 = 1500 mg/kg).

+
++

e. picrotoxin (LD50 = 5 mg/kg).

++
++
++

Place the following mechanisms of toxin delivery in order from most effective to least effective—1: intravenous; 2: subcutaneous; 3: oral; 4: inhalation; 5: dermal.

+
+
++

a. 1, 5, 2, 4, 3.

+
++

b. 4, 1, 2, 3, 5.

+
++

c. 1, 4, 2, 3, 5.

+
++

d. 4, 2, 1, 5, 3.

+
++

e. 1, 4, 3, 2, 5.

++
++
++

A toxin with a half-life of 12 h is administered every 12 h. Which of the following is true?

+
+
++

a. The chemical is eliminated from the body before the next dose is administered.

+
++

b. The concentration of the chemical in the body will slowly increase until the toxic concentration is attained.

+
++

c. A toxic level will not be reached, regardless of how many doses are administered.

+
++

d. Acute exposure to the chemical will produce immediate toxic effects.

+
++

e. The elimination rate of the toxin is much shorter than the dosing interval.

++
++
++

Urushiol is the toxin found in poison ivy. It must first react and combine with proteins in the skin in order for the immune system to recognize and mount a response against it. Urushiol is an example of which of the following?

+
+
++

a. antigen.

+
++

b. auto-antibody.

+
++

c. superantigen.

+
++

d. hapten.

+
++

e. cytokine.

++
++
++

Toxic chemicals are most likely to be biotransformed in which of the following organs?

+
+
++

a. central nervous system.

+
++

b. heart.

+
++

c. lung.

+
++

d. pancreas.

+
++

e. liver.

++
++
++

When chemicals A and B are administered simultaneously, their combined effects are far ...

Pop-up div Successfully Displayed

This div only appears when the trigger link is hovered over. Otherwise it is hidden from view.