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Chapter 4. Risk Assessment

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Which of the following is NOT important in hazard identification?

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a. structure–activity analysis.

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b. in vitro tests.

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c. animal bioassays.

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d. susceptibility.

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e. epidemiology.

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The probability of an adverse outcome is defined as:

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a. hazard.

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b. exposure ratio.

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c. risk.

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d. susceptibility.

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e. epidemiology.

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The systematic scientific characterization of adverse health effects resulting from human exposure to hazardous agents is the definition of:

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a. risk.

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b. hazard control.

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c. risk assessment.

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d. risk communication.

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e. risk estimate.

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Which of the following is not an objective of risk management?

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a. setting target levels for risk.

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b. balancing risks and benefits.

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c. calculating lethal dosages.

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d. setting priorities for manufacturers.

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e. estimating residual risks.

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Which of the following is NOT a feature in the design of standard cancer bioassays?

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a. more than one species.

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b. both sexes.

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c. near lifetime exposure.

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d. approximately 50 animals per dose group.

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e. same dose level for all groups.

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Which of the following types of epidemiologic study is always retrospective?

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a. cohort.

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b. cross-sectional.

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c. case–control.

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d. longitudinal.

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e. exploratory.

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Which of the following is defined as the highest nonstatistically significant dose tested?

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a. ED50

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b. ED100

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c. NOAEL.

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d. ADI.

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e. COAEL.

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Which of the following represents the dose below which no additional increase in response is observed?

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a. ED10

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b....

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