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Chapter 9. Genetic Toxicology

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Oncogenes:

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a. maintain normal cellular growth and development.

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b. exert their action in a genetically recessive fashion.

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c. are often formed via translocation to a location with a more active promoter.

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d. can be mutated to form proto-oncogenes.

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e. include growth factors and GTPases, but not transcription factors.

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Which of the following is NOT one of the more common sources of DNA damage?

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a. ionizing radiation.

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b. UV light.

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c. electrophilic chemicals.

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d. DNA polymerase error.

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e. x-rays.

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Which of the following pairs of DNA repair mechanisms is most likely to introduce mutations into the genetic composition of an organism?

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a. nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) and base excision repair.

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b. nonhomologous end-joining and homologous recombination.

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c. homologous recombination and nucleotide excision repair.

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d. nucleotide excision repair and base excision repair.

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e. homologous recombination and mismatch repair.

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Which of the following DNA mutations would NOT be considered a frameshift mutation?

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a. insertion of 5 nucleotides.

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b. insertion of 7 nucleotides.

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c. deletion of 18 nucleotides.

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d. deletion of 13 nucleotides.

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e. deletion of 1 nucleotide.

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Which of the following base-pair mutations is properly characterized as a transversion mutation?

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a. T → C.

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b. A → G.

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c. G → A.

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d. T → U.

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e. A → C.

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All of the following statements regarding nondisjunction during meiosis are true EXCEPT:

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a. Nondisjunction events can happen during meiosis I or meiosis II.

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b. All gametes from nondisjunction events have an abnormal chromosome number.

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c. Trisomy 21 (Down syndrome) is a common example of nondisjunction.

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d. In a nondisjunction event in meiosis I, homologous chromosomes fail to separate.

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e. The incorrect formation of spindle fibers is a common cause of ...

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