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Chapter 16. Toxic Responses of the Nervous System

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Which of the following statements regarding axons and/or axonal transport is FALSE?

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a. Single nerve cells can be over 1 m in length.

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b. Fast axonal transport is responsible for movement of proteins from the cell body to the axon.

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c. Anterograde transport is accomplished by the protein kinesin.

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d. The motor proteins, kinesin and dynein, are associated with microtubules.

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e. A majority of the ATP in nerve cells is used for axonal transport.

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Which of the following statements is not characteristic of Schwann cells in Wallerian degeneration?

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a. Schwann cells provide physical guidance needed for the regrowth of the axon.

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b. Schwann cells release trophic factors that stimulate growth.

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c. Schwann cells act to clear the myelin debris with the help of macrophages.

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d. Schwann cells increase synthesis of myelin lipids in response to axonal damage.

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e. Schwann cells are responsible for myelination of axons in the peripheral nervous system.

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Prenatal exposure to ethanol can result in mental retardation and hearing deficits in the newborn. What is the cellular basis of the neurotoxicity?

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a. neuronal loss in cerebellum.

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b. acute cortical hemorrhage.

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c. microcephaly.

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d. loss of hippocampal neurons.

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e. degeneration of the basal ganglia.

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Which of the following characteristics is LEAST likely to place a neuron at risk of toxic damage?

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a. high metabolic rate.

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b. ability to release neurotransmitters.

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c. long neuronal processes supported by the soma.

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d. excitable membranes.

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e. large surface area.

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The use of meperidine contaminated with MPTP will result in a Parkinson’s disease-like neurotoxicity. Where is the most likely site in the brain that MPTP exerts its toxic effects?

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a. cerebellum.

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b. cerebral cortex.

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c. brainstem.

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d. substantia nigra.

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e. hippocampus.

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Which of the following statements regarding the PNS and the CNS is TRUE?

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a....

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