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Chapter 21. Toxic Responses of the Endocrine System

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The inability to release hormones from the anterior pituitary would NOT affect the release of which of the following?

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a. LH.

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b. PRL.

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c. ADH.

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d. TSH.

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e. ACTH.

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Which of the following statements regarding pituitary hormones is TRUE?

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a. The hypothalamic–hypophyseal portal system transports releasing hormones to the neurohypophysis.

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b. Dopamine enhances prolactin secretion from the anterior pituitary.

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c. Somatostatin inhibits the release of GH.

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d. The function of chromophobes in the anterior pituitary is unknown.

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e. Oxytocin and ADH are synthesized by hypothalamic nuclei.

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21-Hydroxylase deficiency causes masculinization of female genitals at birth by increasing androgen secretion from which region of the adrenal gland?

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a. zona glomerulosa.

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b. zona reticularis.

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c. adrenal medulla.

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d. zona fasciculata.

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e. chromaffin cells.

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Which of the following statements regarding adrenal toxicity is TRUE?

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a. The adrenal cortex and adrenal medulla are equally susceptible to fat-soluble toxins.

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b. Adrenal cortical cells lack the enzymes necessary to metabolize xenobiotic chemicals.

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c. Pheochromocytomas of the adrenal medulla can cause high blood pressure and clammy skin due to increased epinephrine release.

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d. Xenobiotics primarily affect the hydroxylase enzymes in the zona reticularis.

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e. Vitamin D is an important stimulus for adrenal cortex steroid secretion.

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Chemical blockage of iodine transport in the thyroid gland:

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a. affects export of T3 and T4.

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b. prevents reduction to I2 by thyroid peroxidase.

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c. decreases TRH release from the hypothalamus.

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d. interrupts intracellular thyroid biosynthesis.

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e. mimics goiter.

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Chromaffin cells of the adrenal gland are responsible for secretion of which of the following?

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a. aldosterone.

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b. epinephrine.

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c. corticosterone.

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d. testosterone.

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e. estradiol.

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