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Chapter 22. Toxic Effects of Pesticides

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Which of the following does NOT contribute to the environmental presence of organochlorine insecticides?

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a. high water solubility.

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b. low volatility.

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c. chemical stability.

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d. low cost.

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e. slow rate of degradation.

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All of the following are characteristic of DDT poisoning EXCEPT:

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a. paresthesia.

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b. hypertrophy of hepatocytes.

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c. increased potassium transport across the membrane.

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d. slow closing of sodium ion channels.

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e. dizziness.

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Anticholinesterase agents:

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a. enhance the activity of AChE.

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b. increase ACh concentration in the synaptic cleft.

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c. only target the neuromuscular junction.

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d. antagonize ACh receptors.

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e. cause decreased autonomic nervous system stimulation.

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All of the following symptoms would be expected following anticholinesterase insecticide poisoning EXCEPT:

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a. bronchodilation.

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b. tachycardia.

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c. diarrhea.

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d. increased blood pressure.

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e. dyspnea.

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Which of the following insecticides blocks the electron transport chain at NADH–ubiquinone reductase?

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a. nicotine.

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b. carbamate esters.

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c. nitromethylenes.

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d. pyrethroid esters.

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e. rotenoids.

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What is the main mechanism of pyrethroid ester toxicity?

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a. blockage of neurotransmitter release.

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b. inhibition of neurotransmitter reuptake.

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c. acting as a receptor agonist.

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d. causing hyperexcitability of the membrane by interfering with sodium transport.

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e. interfering with Cl transport across the axonal membrane.

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Which of the following herbicides is NOT correctly paired with its mechanism of action?

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a. glufosinate—inhibition of glutamine synthetase.

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b. paraquat—interference with protein synthesis.

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c. glyphosate—inhibition of amino acid synthesis.

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d. chlorophenoxy compounds—growth stimulants.

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e. diquat—production of superoxide anion through redox cycling.

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