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Chapter 24. Toxic Effects of Solvents and Vapors

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Which of the following statements regarding solvents is FALSE?

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a. Solvents can be absorbed from the GI tract and through the skin.

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b. Equilibration of absorbed solvents/vapors occurs most quickly in the lungs.

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c. Solvents are small molecules that lack charge.

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d. Volatility of solvents increases with molecular weight.

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e. Most solvents are refined from petroleum.

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What is the route in which most solvents enter the environment?

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a. chemical spills.

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b. contamination of drinking water.

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c. evaporation.

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d. improper waste disposal.

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e. wind.

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All of the following statements are true EXCEPT:

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a. Most solvents can pass freely through membranes by diffusion.

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b. A solvent’s lipophilicity is important in determining its rate of dermal absorption.

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c. Hydrophilic solvents have a relatively low blood:air partition coefficient.

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d. Biotransformation of a lipophilic solvent can result in the production of a mutagenic compound.

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e. Hepatic first-pass metabolism determines the amount of solvent absorbed in the GI tract.

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Which of the following statements regarding age solvent toxicity is TRUE?

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a. GI absorption is greater in adults than it is in children.

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b. Polar solvents reach higher blood levels in the elderly than they do in children.

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c. Children are always more susceptible to solvent toxicity than are adults.

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d. Increased alveolar ventilation increases uptake of lipid-soluble solvents to a greater extent than water-soluble solvents.

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e. Increased body fat percentage increases clearance of solvent chemicals.

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Huffing gasoline can result in which of the following serious health problems?

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a. renal failure.

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b. pneumothorax.

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c. Hodgkin’s disease.

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d. encephalopathy.

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e. thrombocytopenia.

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Which of the following statements regarding benzene is FALSE?

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a. High-level exposure to benzene could result in acute myelogenous leukemia (AML).

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b. Gasoline vapor emissions and auto exhaust are the two main contributors to ...

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