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Chapter 25. Toxic Effects of Radiation and Radioactive Materials

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Which of the following is NOT a main type of radiation?

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a. alpha particles.

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b. microwaves.

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c. beta particles.

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d. gamma-rays.

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e. X-rays.

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Which of the following statements regarding alpha particles is FALSE?

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a. Alpha particles are ejected from the nucleus of an atom.

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b. The atomic number decreases by two after emission of an alpha particle.

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c. The atomic weight decreases by two after emission of an alpha particle.

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d. Energies of most alpha particles range between 4 and 8 MeV.

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e. Alpha particles are helium nuclei.

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Which of the following types of radiation is likely the MOST energetic?

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a. alpha particles.

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b. beta particles.

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c. positron emission.

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d. electron capture.

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e. photon emission.

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Pair production and the Compton effect characterize which type of radiation’s interaction with matter?

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a. alpha particles.

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b. beta particles.

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c. positron emission.

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d. electron capture.

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e. photon emission.

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Which of the following statements regarding radiation DNA damage is FALSE?

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a. Ionizing radiation slows down by forming ion pairs.

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b. A main form of radiation DNA damage occurs by the production of free radicals.

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c. High-LET radiation causes more ionizations than does low-LET radiation.

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d. Most DNA damage caused by radiation happens directly.

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e. Direct and indirect ionization cause similar damage to DNA.

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Low-LET radiation:

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a. causes large-scale ionizations throughout the cell.

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b. results from alpha particle emission.

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c. causes damage that is readily repaired by cellular enzymes.

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d. is also known as densely ionizing radiation.

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e. usually causes irreparable cell damage.

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What is the most common type of DNA damage caused by low-LET radiation exposure?

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