Skip to Main Content

++

Chapter 27. Toxic Effects of Calories

++
++
++

Humans consume food to provide energy needed to

+
+
++

a. drive cellular functions including digestion, metabolism, pumping blood, nerve activity, and muscle contractions.

+
++

b. promote photosynthesis.

+
++

c. synthesize oxygen in the lungs.

+
++

d. prepare minerals for use in the body.

+
++

e. produce carbon dioxide to fuel body functions.

++
++
++

Neural control of energy balance

+
+
++

a. may be defined as the action of leptin on CNS function.

+
++

b. may be defined as the action of hypothalamic cholinergic control of appetite and hedonic control.

+
++

c. may involve a balance between food intake and energy expenditure.

+
++

d. may involve a balance between leptin’s action on orexigenic versus anorexigenic peptide expression.

+
++

e. may involve adrenocortical control of hepatic function.

++
++
++

Body composition may be assessed by

+
+
++

a. electrical impedance because lean mass has more water and greater conductivity than fat mass.

+
++

b. anthropometric analysis of the body mass index.

+
++

c. hydrodensitometry, which uses the density of the whole body and corrects for residual air in the lungs and GI tract to determine relative body fat.

+
++

d. nuclear magnetic resonance.

+
++

e. all of the above.

++
++
++

Ectopic fat deposition includes

+
+
++

a. adipose tissue.

+
++

b. skeletal muscle.

+
++

c. lungs.

+
++

d. heart.

+
++

e. GI tract.

++
++
++

Excess calories may be

+
+
++

a. stored as glucose in adipose tissue.

+
++

b. stored as triglycerides in CNS tissue.

+
++

c. stored as glycogen in CNS tissue.

+
++

d. stored as glycogen in the liver.

+
++

e. stored as triglycerides in the GI tract.

++
++
++

Metabolic syndrome is a constellation of actions including

+
+
++

a. typically results from elevated fasting glucose, increased HDL, and hypertension.

+
++

b. typically results from elevated fasting glucose, increased LDL, and hypertension.

+
++

c. typically results from elevated fasting glucose, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypotension.

+
++

d. typically results from elevated ...

Pop-up div Successfully Displayed

This div only appears when the trigger link is hovered over. Otherwise it is hidden from view.