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Chapter 30. Ecotoxicology

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What is the mode by which a chemical enters the lithosphere?

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a. evaporation.

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b. adsorption.

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c. dissolution.

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d. absorption.

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e. diffusion.

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The bioavailability of contaminants in the hydrosphere is directly related to:

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a. chemical concentration.

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b. amount of chemical.

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c. water solubility of chemical.

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d. toxicity of chemical.

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e. molecular size of chemical.

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All of the following regarding biomarkers are true EXCEPT:

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a. Dermal absorption is considered an external dose.

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b. Biomarkers of susceptibility are useful in extrapolating wildlife disease to human diseases.

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c. Induction of certain enzymes is an important biomarker.

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d. The biologically effective dose is the amount of internal dose needed to elicit a certain response.

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e. The effects of chemical exposure can be different across species.

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Which of the following processes is LEAST likely to be affected by endocrine-disrupting agents?

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a. enzyme activity.

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b. transcription.

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c. hormone secretion.

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d. signal transduction.

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e. DNA replication.

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Estrogen exposure has been shown to cause all of the following in wildlife species EXCEPT:

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a. sexual imprinting.

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b. altered sex hormone levels.

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c. immune suppression.

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d. gonadal malformations.

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e. sex reversal.

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Which of the following is FALSE regarding terrestrial ecotoxicology?

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a. Terrestrial organisms are generally exposed to contaminants via ingestion.

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b. Predation is an important confounder of measurements in terrestrial toxicology field studies.

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c. Reproductive tests are not important in measuring end points in toxicity tests.

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d. Enclosure studies are better able to control for environmental factors in field studies.

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e. Toxicity tests usually test the effects of an oral chemical dose.

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An important type(s) of compound that is far more toxic in water than in air is/are:

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