Paraneoplastic neurologic disorders (PNDs) are cancer-related syndromes that can affect any part of the nervous system (Table 55-1). They are caused by mechanisms other than metastasis or by any of the complications of cancer such as coagulopathy, stroke, metabolic and nutritional conditions, infections, and side effects of cancer therapy. In 60% of patients, the neurologic symptoms precede the cancer diagnosis. Clinically disabling PNDs occur in 0.5–1% of all cancer patients, but they affect 2–3% of patients with neuroblastoma or small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) and 30–50% of patients with thymoma or sclerotic myeloma.
TABLE 55-1Paraneoplastic Syndromes of the Nervous System |Favorite Table|Download (.pdf) TABLE 55-1 Paraneoplastic Syndromes of the Nervous System
|Classic Syndromes: Usually Occur with Cancer Association ||Nonclassic Syndromes: May Occur with and Without Cancer Association |
Cerebellar degeneration (adults)
Subacute sensory neuronopathy
Gastrointestinal paresis or pseudo-obstruction
Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome
Cancer- or melanoma-associated retinopathy
Motor neuron disease
Subacute and chronic mixed sensory-motor neuropathies
Neuropathy associated with plasma cell dyscrasias and lymphoma
Vasculitis of nerve
Pure autonomic neuropathy
Acute necrotizing myopathy
Vasculitis of muscle
Most PNDs are mediated by immune responses triggered by neuronal proteins (onconeuronal antigens) expressed by tumors. In PNDs of the central nervous system (CNS), many antibody-associated immune responses have been identified (Table 55-2). These antibodies react with the patient’s tumor, and their detection in serum or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) usually predicts the presence of cancer. When the antigens are intracellular, most syndromes are associated with extensive infiltrates of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, microglial activation, gliosis, and variable neuronal loss. The infiltrating T cells are often in close contact with neurons undergoing degeneration, suggesting a primary pathogenic role. T cell–mediated cytotoxicity may contribute directly to cell death in these PNDs. Thus both humoral and cellular immune mechanisms participate in the pathogenesis of many PNDs. This complex immunopathogenesis may underlie the resistance of many of these conditions to therapy.
TABLE 55-2Antibodies to Intracellular Antigens, Syndromes, and Associated Cancers |Favorite Table|Download (.pdf) TABLE 55-2 Antibodies to Intracellular Antigens, Syndromes, and Associated Cancers
|Antibody ||Associated Neurologic Syndrome(s) ||Tumors |
|Anti-Hu (ANNA1) ||Encephalomyelitis, subacute sensory neuronopathy ||SCLC |
|Anti-Yo (PCA1) ||Cerebellar degeneration ||Ovary, breast |
|Anti-Ri (ANNA2) ||Cerebellar degeneration, opsoclonus, brainstem encephalitis ||Breast, gynecologic, SCLC |
|Anti-Tr ||Cerebellar degeneration ||Hodgkin’s lymphoma |
|Anti-CRMP5 (CV2) ||Encephalomyelitis, chorea, optic neuritis, uveitis, peripheral neuropathy ||SCLC, thymoma, other |
|Anti-Ma proteins ||Limbic, hypothalamic, brainstem encephalitis ||Testicular (Ma2), other (Ma) |
|Anti-amphiphysin ||Stiff-person syndrome, encephalomyelitis ||Breast, SCLC |
|Recoverin, bipolar cell antibodies, othersa || |
Cancer-associated retinopathy (CAR)
Melanoma-associated retinopathy (MAR)
|SCLC (CAR), melanoma (MAR) |
|Anti-GAD ||Stiff-person, cerebellar syndromes, limbic encephalitis ||Infrequent tumor association (thymoma) |
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