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Chapter 8. Blood and Hematopoiesis

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Refer to the micrograph below to answer the following question.

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A 5-year-old child is brought to the clinic by her parents because she has a fever and malaise. An increase in which type of formed blood element would be most likely consistent with the presence of a bacterial infection in the child?

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A. A

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B. B

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C. C

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D. D

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E. E

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F. F

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The answer is C: The polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) is the principal innate immune system cell involved in fighting bacterial infections.

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Refer to the micrograph below to answer the following question.

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Image not available.

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A 25-year-old Peace Corps worker who recently returned from Africa to the United States is seen in the clinic because of a complaint of acute onset of abdominal pain and fever. The physician suspects schistosomiasis, a disease caused by a round worm of the Schistosoma genus, which is endemic in the country where the patient has been serving. An increase in which type of formed blood element would be most likely consistent with this diagnosis?

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A. A

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B. B

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C. C

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D. D

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E. E

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F. F

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The answer is D: The eosinophil is the principal innate immune system cell involved in fighting parasitic worm infections. The acute onset of schistosomiasis includes symptoms experienced by this patient; an elevated eosinophil count also would be expected. Stool samples also are analyzed microscopically to determine the presence of the parasite's eggs to confirm the diagnosis.

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Refer to the micrograph below to answer the following question.

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Image not available.

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A 10-year-old boy with chronic kidney disease is seen in the clinic because he has recently experienced nosebleeds. Laboratory studies show a high BUN (blood urea nitrogen) and abnormal electrolyte levels, a constellation of symptoms known as uremia and associated with declining renal function. Clotting issues are associated with uremia and may be the likely cause for the boy's nosebleeds. In this case, which formed blood element was most likely affected by the boy's uremia?

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A. A

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B. B

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C. C

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D. D

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