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Chapter 11. Skin

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Refer to the micrograph below to answer the following question.

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A 35-year-old man visits the clinic because he has a cyst on his scalp that has a foul-smelling drainage. The man reports that the drainage occurs spontaneously, and recently the cyst has enlarged and become painful. The cyst is associated with the structure in the micrograph indicated by the arrow. Which mechanism of secretion is normally used by this structure?

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A. Apocrine

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B. Autocrine

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C. Cytocrine

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D. Eccrine

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E. Holocrine

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F. Merocrine

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The answer is E: The arrow indicates a sebaceous gland in the section of scalp shown in the micrograph. Sebum is released when cells in the gland rupture and release their contents into hair follicles, a mechanism termed holocrine secretion.

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Refer to the micrograph below to answer the following question.

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What is the composition of the secretion produced by the encircled structures on the micrograph when the secretion is released on the skin surface?

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A. Hypertonic relative to plasma

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B. Hypotonic relative to plasma

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C. Isotonic with plasma

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D. Viscous and odorless

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E. Viscous and waxy

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The answer is B: The circle on the micrograph encloses an eccrine sweat gland in the scalp. Eccrine glands release a watery product by merocrine secretion. Initially, the electrolyte balance of the fluid produced by the secretory cells is similar to blood plasma. However, almost all K+, Na+, and Cl is resorbed by the ducts, thus sweat released on skin is hypotonic.

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Refer to the micrograph below to answer the following question.

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What is the predominant tissue in the structure shown in the micrograph indicated by an asterisk?

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A. Dense irregular connective tissue

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B. Dense regular connective tissue

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C. Nervous tissue

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D. Smooth muscle

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E. Striated muscle

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The answer is D: The asterisk on the micrograph indicates an arrector pili muscle in the scalp. These muscles are bands of smooth muscle that originate in the connective tissue sheath of the hair follicle and attach to the papillary dermis. ...

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