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Contributors
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Numbers in brackets refer to the chapter(s) written or cowritten by the contributor.

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Neil M. Ampel, MD

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Professor of Medicine, University of Arizona; Staff Physician, Southern Arizona Veterans Affairs Health Care System, Tucson, Arizona [112]

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Rosa M. Andrade, MD

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Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, California [122]

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Cesar A. Arias, MD, PhD, MSc

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Associate Professor of Medicine, Microbiology and Molecular Genetics; Director, Laboratory for Antimicrobial Research, University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Houston, Texas; Director, Molecular Genetics and Antimicrobial Unit; Co-Director, International Center for Microbial Genomics, Universidad, El Bosque, Bogota, Colombia [45]

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Andrew W. Artenstein, MD

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Professor of Medicine, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts; Adjunct Professor of Medicine and Health Services, Policy and Practice, Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island; Chair, Department of Medicine, Baystate Health, Springfield, Massachusetts [9]

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John C. Atherton, MD, FRCP

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Professor of Gastroenterology and Dean of the School of Medicine, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom [60]

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Paul S. Auerbach, MD, MS, FACEP, FAWM

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Redich Family Professor of Surgery, Division of Emergency Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California [136]

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Lindsey R. Baden, MD

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Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [87]

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Natalie J. Badowski, MD

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Division of Emergency Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California [136]

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Alan G. Barbour, MD

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Professor of Medicine and Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of California Irvine, Irvine, California [81]

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Tamar F. Barlam, MD, MSc

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Associate Professor of Medicine, Infectious Disease Section, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts [18, 55]

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Rebecca M. Baron, MD

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Assistant Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Associate Physician, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts [22, 23]

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Miriam Baron Barshak, MD

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Assistant Professor, Harvard Medical School; Associate Physician, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [22, 23, 29]

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Robert C. Basner, MD

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Professor of Clinical Medicine, Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York [Appendix]

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Nicholas J. Beeching, MA, BM BCh, FRCP, FRACP, FFTM RCPS(Glasg), DCH, DTM&H

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Senior Lecturer (Clinical) in Infectious Diseases, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine; Clinical Director, Tropical and Infectious Disease Unit, Royal Liverpool University Hospital; NIHR Health Protection Research Unit in Emerging and Zoonotic Infections, Liverpool; Honorary Consultant, Public Health England and Honorary Civilian Consultant in Infectious Diseases, Army Medical Directorate, United Kingdom [66]

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Jean Bergounioux, MD, PhD, PhC

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Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, Hôpital Raymond-Poincaré, Université de Versailles-Saint Quentin, Garches, France [63]

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Aaron S. Bernstein, MD, MPH

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Instructor, Harvard Medical School; Associate Director, Center for Health and the Global Environment, Harvard School of Public Health; Pediatric Hospitalist, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [8]

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Roby P. Bhattacharyya, MD, PhD

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Instructor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Assistant in Medicine, Division of Infectious Disease, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [4]

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William R. Bishai, MD, PhD

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Professor and Co-Director, Center for Tuberculosis Research, Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland [47]

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Martin J. Blaser, MD

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Muriel and George Singer Professor of Medicine; Professor of Microbiology; Director, Human Microbiome Program, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, New York [60, 64]

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Chantal P. Bleeker-Rovers, MD, PhD

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Department of Internal Medicine, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands [13]

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Gijs Bleijenberg, PhD

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Professor Emeritus, Expert Centre for Chronic Fatigue, Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands [38]

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Eugene Braunwald, MD, MA (Hon), ScD (Hon), FRCP

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Distinguished Hersey Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Founding Chairman, TIMI Study Group, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [25]

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Joel G. Breman, MD, DTPH

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Senior Scientific Advisor, Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland [123, 125]

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Cynthia D. Brown, MD

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Associate Professor of Clinical Medicine, Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, Sleep and Occupational Medicine Indiana University, Indianapolis, Indiana [Review and Self-Assessment]

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Darron R. Brown, MD

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Professor of Medicine, Microbiology and Immunology, Division of Infectious Diseases, Simon Cancer Center, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana [94]

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Kevin E. Brown, MD, MRCp, FRCPath

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Virus Reference Department, Public Health England, London, United Kingdom [93]

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Amy E. Bryant, PhD

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Affiliate Assistant Professor, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington; Research Scientist, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Boise, Idaho [51]

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Stephen B. Calderwood, MD

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Morton N. Swartz, MD Academy Professor of Medicine (Microbiology and Immunobiology), Harvard Medical School; Chief, Division of Infectious Diseases, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [30]

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Jonathan R. Carapetis, MBBS, PhD, FRACP, FAFPHM

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Director, Telethon Kids Institute, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia [46]

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Kathryn M. Carbone, MD

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Deputy Scientific Director, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, Bethesda, Maryland [104]

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Arturo Casadevall, MD, PhD

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Chair, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York [114]

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Jeffrey I. Cohen, MD

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Chief, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland [90, 101]

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Yehuda Z. Cohen, MD

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Clinical Fellow, Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases and Center for Virology and Vaccine Research, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center; Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts [96]

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Ronit Cohen-Poradosu, MD

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Senior Physician, Infectious Diseases Unit, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv, Israel [73]

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Michael J. Corbel, PhD, DSc, FRCPath

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Retired (previously Head, Division of Bacteriology, National Institute for Biological Standards and Control, Hertfordshire, United Kingdom) [66]

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Lawrence Corey, MD

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Professor, Medicine and Laboratory Medicine, University of Washington; President Emeritus, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center; Member, Vaccine and Infectious Disease Division; Principal Investigator, HIV Vaccine Trials Network, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington [88]

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Charles E. Davis, MD

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Professor of Pathology and Medicine, Emeritus, University of California, San Diego School of Medicine; Director Emeritus, Microbiology, University of California, San Diego Medical Center, San Diego, California [120]

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David W. Denning, MBBS, FRCP, FRCPath, FMedSci

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Professor of Medicine and Medical Mycology; Director, National Aspergillosis Centre, The University of Manchester and Wythenshawe Hospital, Manchester, United Kingdom [116]

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Jules L. Dienstag, MD

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Carl W. Walter Professor of Medicine and Dean for Medical Education, Harvard Medical School; Physician, Gastrointestinal Unit, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [99, 100]

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Charles A. Dinarello, MD

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Professor of Medicine and Immunology, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, Colorado; Professor of Experimental Medicine, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands [11]

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Raphael Dolin, MD

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Maxwell Finland Professor of Medicine (Microbiology and Molecular Genetics), Harvard Medical School; Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center; Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [87, 95, 96]

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J. Stephen Dumler, MD

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Professor, Division of Medical Microbiology, Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland [83]

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John E. Edwards, Jr., MD

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Professor of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, California; Chief, Division of Infectious Diseases, Harbor/UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, California [110, 115]

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Andrew J. Einstein, MD, PhD

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Victoria and Esther Aboodi Assistant Professor of Medicine; Director, Cardiac CT Research; Co-Director, Cardiac CT and MRI, Department of Medicine, Cardiology Division, Department of Radiology, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, New York [Appendix]

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Moshe Ephros, MD

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Clinical Associate Professor, Faculty of Medicine, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology; Pediatric Infectious Disease Unit, Carmel Medical Center; Haifa, Israel [69]

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Aaron C. Ermel, MD

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Assistant Research Professor; Assistant Professor of Clinical Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Disease, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana [94]

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Anthony S. Fauci, MD

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Chief, Laboratory of Immunoregulation; Director, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland [10, 97, 108]

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Gregory A. Filice, MD

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Professor of Medicine, Medical School, and Adjunct Professor of Epidemiology and Community Health, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota; Chief, Infectious Disease Section, Veterans Affairs Healthcare System, Minneapolis, Minnesota [71]

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Robert W. Finberg, MD

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Chair, Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts [15, 16]

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Joyce Fingeroth, MD

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Professor of Medicine and MAPS, Division of Infectious Disease, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts [16]

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Larry C. Ford, MD

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Clinical Infectious Diseases, Intermountain Healthcare, Provo, Utah [20]

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Charlotte A. Gaydos, DrPh

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Professor of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Division of Infectious Diseases, Baltimore, Maryland [85]

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Robert H. Gelber, MD

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Clinical Professor of Medicine and Dermatology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California [75]

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Dale N. Gerding, MD

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Professor of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Loyola University Chicago Stritch School of Medicine, Maywood, Illinois; Research Physician, Edward Hines Jr. Veterans Affairs Hospital, Hines, Illinois [31]

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Michael Giladi, MD, MSc

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Associate Professor of Medicine, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University; The Infectious Disease Unit and the Bernard Pridan Laboratory for Molecular Biology of Infectious Diseases, Tel Aviv Medical Center, Tel Aviv, Israel [69]

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Roger I. Glass, MD, PhD

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Director, Fogarty International Center, Bethesda, Maryland [98]

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David Goldblatt, MB, ChB, PhD

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Professor of Vaccinology and Immunology; Consultant in Paediatric Immunology; Director of Clinical Research and Development; Director, NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, Institute of Child Health; University College London; Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust, London, United Kingdom [42]

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Ralph Gonzales, MD, MSPH

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Professor of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California [20]

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Jeffrey I. Gordon, MD

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Dr. Robert J. Glaser Distinguished University Professor and Director, Center for Genome Sciences and Systems Biology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri [3]

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Yonatan H. Grad, MD, PhD

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Assistant Professor of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health; Associate Physician, Division of Infectious Diseases, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [4]

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Kalpana Gupta, MD, MPH

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Associate Professor, Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine; Chief, Section of Infectious Diseases, VA Boston Healthcare System, Boston, Massachusetts [33]

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Chadi A. Hage, MD

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Assistant Professor of Medicine, Thoracic Transplant Program, Indiana University Health, Indianapolis, Indiana [111]

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Scott A. Halperin, MD

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Professor of Pediatrics and Microbiology and Immunology Head, Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Director, Canadian Center for Vaccinology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada [57]

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R. Doug Hardy, MD

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Infectious Diseases Specialists, PA; Medical City Dallas Hospital and Medical City Children's Hospital, Dallas; Baylor Regional Medical Center, Plano, Texas [84]

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Rudy A. Hartskeerl, PhD

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Director WHO/FAO/OIE and National Leptospirosis Reference Centre, KIT Biomedical Research, KIT (Royal Tropical Institute), Amsterdam, The Netherlands [80]

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Martin S. Hirsch, MD

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Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Professor of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health; Physician, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [91]

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Elizabeth L. Hohmann, MD

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Associate Professor of Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Harvard Medical School; Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [48]

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Steven M. Holland, MD

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Chief, Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland [76]

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King K. Holmes, MD, PhD

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Chair, Global Health; Professor of Medicine and Global Health; Adjunct Professor, Epidemiology; Director, Center for AIDS and STD; University of Washington School of Medicine; Head, Infectious Diseases Section, Harborview Medical Center, Seattle, Washington [35]

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David C. Hooper, MD

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Professor, Harvard Medical School; Chief, Infection Control Unit; Associate Chief, Division of Infectious Diseases, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [41]

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Brian Houston, MD

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Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland [Review and Self-Assessment]

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Deborah T. Hung, MD, PhD

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Associate Professor of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Assistant Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Brigham and Women's Hospital; Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts; Co-director, Infectious Disease Initiative, Broad Institute of Harvard University and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts [4]

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Ashraf S. Ibrahim, PhD

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Professor, Department of Medicine, Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA); Division of Infectious Diseases, Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor–UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, California [117]

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Alan C. Jackson, MD, FRCPC

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Professor of Medicine (Neurology) and of Medical Microbiology, University of Manitoba; Section Head of Neurology, Winnipeg Regional Health Authority, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada [105]

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Lisa A. Jackson, MD, MPH

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Senior Investigator, Group Health Research Institute, Seattle, Washington [5]

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Danny O. Jacobs, MD, MPH, FACS

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Executive Vice President, Provost, and Dean of the School of Medicine; Thomas N. and Gleaves T. James Distinguished Chair, The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, Galveston, Texas [32]

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Richard F. Jacobs, MD

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Robert H. Fiser, Jr., MD Endowed Chair in Pediatrics; Professor and Chairman, Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences; President, Arkansas Children's Hospital Research Institute, Little Rock, Arkansas [67]

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James R. Johnson, MD

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Professor of Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota [58]

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Stuart Johnson, MD

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Associate Professor of Medicine, Loyola University Chicago Stritch School of Medicine; Staff Physician, Edward Hines Jr. VA Hospital, Hines, Illinois [31]

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Adolf W. Karchmer, MD

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Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Division of Infectious Diseases, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts [24]

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Dennis L. Kasper, MD

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William Ellery Channing Professor of Medicine and Professor of Microbiology and Immunobiology, Division of Immunology, Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts [1, 18, 29, 55, 73]

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Lloyd H. Kasper, MD

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Professor of Microbiology/Immunology and Medicine, Geisel School of Medicine, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire [128]

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Carol A. Kauffman, MD

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Professor of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School; Chief, Infectious Diseases Section, Veterans Affairs Ann Arbor Healthcare System, Ann Arbor, Michigan [118]

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Elaine T. Kaye, MD

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Assistant Clinical Professor of Dermatology, Harvard Medical School; Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [12, 14]

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Kenneth M. Kaye, MD

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Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Division of Infectious Diseases, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [12, 14]

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Jay S. Keystone, MD, FRCPC, MSc(CTM)

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Professor of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada [6]

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Elliott Kieff, MD, PhD

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Harriet Ryan Albee Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [86]

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Kami Kim, MD

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Professor, Departments of Medicine, Pathology, and Microbiology and Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York [128]

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Charles H. King, MD, MS

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Professor, Center for Global Health and Diseases, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio [134]

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Louis V. Kirchhoff, MD, MPH

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Professor, Departments of Internal Medicine (Infectious Diseases) and Epidemiology, University of Iowa; Staff Physician, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Iowa City, Iowa [127]

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Rob Knight, PhD

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Professor, Howard Hughes Medical Institute; Departments of Chemistry and Biochemistry and Computer Science, Biofrontiers Institute, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado [3]

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Walter J. Koroshetz, MD

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National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland [37]

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Camille Nelson Kotton, MD, FIDSA

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Clinical Director, Transplant and Immunocompromised Host Infectious Diseases, Infectious Diseases Division, Massachusetts General Hospital; Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts [91]

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Phyllis E. Kozarsky, MD

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Professor of Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia [6]

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Alexander Kratz, MD, MPH, PhD

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Associate Professor of Clinical Pathology and Cell Biology, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons; Director, Core Laboratory, Columbia University Medical Center and the New York Presbyterian Hospital; Director, the Allen Hospital Laboratory, New York, New York [Appendix]

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Peter J. Krause, MD

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Senior Research Scientist, Yale School of Public Health; Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut [124]

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Jens H. Kuhn, MD, PhD, MS

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Principal, Tunnell Government Services (TGS), Inc.; Lead Virologist, Integrated Research Facility at Fort Detrick (IRF-Frederick); TGS IRF-Frederick Team Leader, NIH/NIAID/DCR, Fort Detrick, Frederick, Maryland [106, 107]

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H. Clifford Lane, MD

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Clinical Director, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland [10, 97]

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Regina C. LaRocque, MD, MPH

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Assistant Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Assistant Physician, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [30]

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Charles Lei, MD

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Assistant Professor, Department of Emergency Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee [136]

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Yusen E. Lin, PhD, MBA

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Professor and Director, Center for Environmental Laboratory Services; National Kaohsiung Normal University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan [56]

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Franklin D. Lowy, MD

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Professor of Medicine and Pathology, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York [43]

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Sheila A. Lukehart, PhD

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Professor, Departments of Medicine and Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington [78, 79]

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Lawrence C. Madoff, MD

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Professor of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts; Director, Division of Epidemiology and Immunization, Massachusetts Department of Public Health, Jamaica Plain, Massachusetts [27, 39, 40]

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Adel A. F. Mahmoud, MD, PhD

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Professor in Molecular Biology and Public Policy, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey [134]

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Lionel A. Mandell, MD, FRCPC

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Professor of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada [21]

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Jeanne M. Marrazzo, MD, MPH

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Professor of Medicine, Division of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington [35]

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Thomas Marrie, MD

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Dean, Faculty of Medicine; Professor, Department of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada [83]

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Susan Maslanka, PhD

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Enteric Diseases Laboratory Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia [50]

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Henry Masur, MD

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Chief, Critical Care Medicine Department, Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland [119]

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Alexander J. McAdam, MD, PhD

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Associate Professor of Pathology, Harvard Medical School; Medical Director, Infectious Diseases Diagnostic Laboratory, Children's Hospital of Boston, Boston, Massachusetts [7]

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Bruce L. Miller, MD

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A. W. and Mary Margaret Clausen Distinguished Professor of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco School of Medicine, San Francisco, California r [109]

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Samuel I. Miller, MD

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Professor, Departments of Microbiology, Medicine and Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington [62]

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Thomas A. Moore, MD, FACP, FIDSA

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Chairman, Department of Infectious Diseases, Ochsner Health System, New Orleans, Louisiana [121]

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David M. Morens, MD

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Office of the Director, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland [108]

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Alison Morris, MD, MS

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Associate Professor, Departments of Medicine and Immunology; Director, University of Pittsburgh HIV Lung Research Center, Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania [119]

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William J. Moss, MD, MPH

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Professor, Departments of Epidemiology, International Health, and Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland [102]

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Robert S. Munford, MD

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Senior Clinician, Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland [19]

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John R. Murphy, PhD

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Professor of Medicine and Microbiology; Director ad interim, National Emerging Infectious Diseases Laboratories Institute, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts [47]

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Timothy F. Murphy, MD

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SUNY Distinguished Professor; Director, Clinical and Translational Research Center, University at Buffalo, the State University of New York, Buffalo, New York [54]

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Barbara E. Murray, MD

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J. Ralph Meadows Professor and Director, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Texas Medical School, Houston, Texas [45]

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Avindra Nath, MD

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Chief, Section of Infections of the Nervous System; Clinical Director, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland [37]

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Rathel L. Nolan, III, MD

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Professor, Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, Mississippi [113]

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Robert L. Norris, MD

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Professor, Department of Surgery; Chief, Division of Emergency Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California [136]

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Scott A. Norton, MD, MPH, MSc

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Chief of Dermatology, Children's National Health Systems, Washington, DC [137]

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Thomas B. Nutman, MD

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Head, Helminth Immunology Section, Head, Clinical Parasitology Unit, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland [132, 133]

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Katherine L. O'Brien, MD, MPH

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Professor, Department of International Health, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland [42]

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Max R. O'Donnell, MD, MPH

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Assistant Professor of Medicine and Epidemiology, Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York [77]

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Nigel O'Farrell, MD, MSc, FRCP

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Ealing Hospital, London, United Kingdom [70]

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Andrew B. Onderdonk, PhD

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Professor of Pathology, Harvard Medical School; Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [7]

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Umesh D. Parashar, MBBS, MPH

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Lead, Viral Gastroenteritis Epidemiology Team, Division of Viral Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia [98]

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David L. Paterson, MD, PhD

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Professor of Medicine, University of Queensland Centre for Clinical Research; Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Brisbane, Australia [59]

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M. Luisa Pedro-Botet, MD, PhD

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Professor of Medicine, Autonomous University of Barcelona; Infectious Diseases Section (Senior Consultant), Germans Trias i Pujol University Hospital, Badalona, Barcelona, Spain [56]

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David A. Pegues, MD

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Professor of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania [62]

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Anton Y. Peleg, MBBS, PhD, MPH, FRACP

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Associate Professor, Department of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, The Alfred Hospital and Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia [59]

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Florencia Pereyra, MD

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Instructor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Associate Physician, Infectious Disease Division, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [39, 40]

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Michael A. Pesce, PhD

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Professor Emeritus of Pathology and Cell Biology, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons; Director, Biochemical Genetics Laboratory, Columbia University Medical Center, New York Presbyterian Hospital, New York, New York [Appendix]

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Clarence J. Peters, MD

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John Sealy Distinguished University Chair in Tropical and Emerging Virology; Professor, Department of Microbiology and Immunology; Department of Pathology; Director for Biodefense, Center for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas [106]

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Gerald B. Pier, PhD

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Professor of Medicine (Microbiology and Immunobiology), Harvard Medical School; Brigham and Women's Hospital, Division of Infectious Diseases, Boston, Massachusetts [2]

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Richard J. Pollack, PhD

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Instructor, Department of Immunology and Infectious Disease, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts; Senior Environmental Public Health Officer, Department of Environmental Health and Safety, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts; President and Chief Scientific Officer, IdentifyUS LLC, Newton, Massachusetts [137]

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Andrew J. Pollard, PhD, FRCPCH

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Professor of Paediatric Infection and Immunity, Department of Paediatrics, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom [52]

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Reuven Porat, MD

++

Professor of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Tel Aviv Souarsky Medical Center; Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel [11]

++

 

++

Daniel A. Portnoy, PhD

++

Professor, Department of Molecular and Cell Biology and the School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California [48]

++

 

++

Michael B. Prentice, MB ChB, PhD, MRCP(UK), FRCPath, FFPRCPI

++

Professor of Medical Microbiology, Departments of Microbiology and Pathology, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland [68]

++

 

++

Stanley B. Prusiner, MD

++

Director, Institute for Neurodegenerative Diseases; Professor, Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California [109]

++

 

++

Thomas C. Quinn, MD

++

Professor of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland; Senior Investigator, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland [85]

++

 

++

Kaitlin Rainwater-Lovett, PhD, MPH

++

Research Fellow, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland [102]

++

 

++

Sanjay Ram, MBBS

++

Associate Professor of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts [53]

++

 

++

Reuben Ramphal, MD

++

Adjunct Professor of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases and Global Medicine, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, Florida [61]

++

 

++

Agam K. Rao, MD

++

Medical Officer, Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia [50]

++

 

++

Anis Rassi, Jr., MD, PhD, FACC, FACP, FAHA

++

Scientific Director, Anis Rassi Hospital, Goiânia, Brazil [127]

++

 

++

Mario C. Raviglione, MD

++

Director, Global TB Programme, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland [74]

++

 

++

Divya Reddy, MBBS, MPH

++

Faculty, Department of Medicine, Pulmonary Division, Albert Einstein College of Medicine; Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, New York [77]

++

 

++

Sharon L. Reed, MD, MSCTM, D(ABMM)

++

Professor of Pathology and Medicine; Director, Microbiology Laboratory, University of California, San Diego School of Medicine, La Jolla, California [120, 122]

++

 

++

Susan E. Reef, MD

++

Medical Epidemiologist, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia [103]

++

 

++

Peter A. Rice, MD

++

Professor of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts [53]

++

 

++

Karen L. Roos, MD

++

John and Nancy Nelson Professor of Neurology; Professor of Neurological Surgery, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana [36]

++

 

++

Michael A. Rubin, MD, PhD

++

Assistant Professor of Medicine, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, Utah [20]

++

 

++

Steven A. Rubin, PhD

++

Acting Principal Investigator, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, Maryland [104]

++

 

++

Thomas A. Russo, MD, CM

++

Staff Physician, Western New York VA Healthcare System; Professor of Medicine and Microbiology and Immunology; Vice Chair of Medicine; Head, Division of Infectious Disease, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, New York [58, 72]

++

 

++

Edward T. Ryan, MD, FACP, FIDSA, FASTMH

++

Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Professor of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health; Director, Global Infectious Diseases, Division of Infectious Diseases, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [30, 65]

++

 

++

Philippe J. Sansonetti, MD

++

Professor, Collège de France; Institut Pasteur, Paris, France [63]

++

 

++

Jussi J. Saukkonen, MD

++

Associate Professor of Medicine, Section of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts [77]

++

 

++

Anne Schuchat, MD

++

RADM, U.S. Public Health Service; Assistant Surgeon General, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia [5]

++

 

++

Gordon E. Schutze, MD, FAAP

++

Professor of Pediatrics; Vice-Chairman for Educational Affairs; Martin I. Lorin, MD Chair in Medical Education, Department of Pediatrics, Section of Retrovirology, Vice President, Baylor International Pediatric AIDS Initiative at Texas Children's Hospital, Baylor College of Medicine, Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, Texas [67]

++

 

++

Erica S. Shenoy, MD, PhD

++

Instructor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Assistant Chief, Infection Control Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [41]

++

 

++

Brad Spellberg, MD

++

Professor of Medicine; Associate Medical Director for Inpatient Services, Harbor–UCLA Medical Center and Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute, Torrance, California [117]

++

 

++

Allen C. Steere, MD

++

Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [82]

++

 

++

Dennis L. Stevens, MD, PhD

++

Professor of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington [26, 51]

++

 

++

Donna C. Sullivan, PhD

++

Professor, Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Mississippi Medical School, Jackson, Mississippi [113]

++

 

++

Shyam Sundar, MD, FRCP, FNA

++

Professor of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India [126]

++

 

++

Neeraj K. Surana, MD, PhD

++

Instructor in Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School; Assistant in Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [1]

++

 

++

C. Louise Thwaites, MD, MBBS

++

Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam [49]

++

 

++

Karina A. Top, MD, MS

++

Assistant Professor of Pediatrics, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada [57]

++

 

++

Barbara W. Trautner, MD, PhD

++

Assistant Professor, Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine; Houston VA Health Services Research and Development Center of Excellence, Houston, Texas [33]

++

 

++

Kenneth L. Tyler, MD

++

Reuler-Lewin Family Professor and Chair of Neurology; Professor of Medicine, Immunology, and Microbiology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado; Neurologist, Denver Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Denver, Colorado [36]

++

 

++

Jos W. M. van der Meer, MD, PhD

++

Professor of Medicine; Head, Department of General Internal Medicine, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands [13, 38]

++

 

++

Edouard G. Vannier, PharmD, PhD

++

Assistant Professor, Division of Geographic Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Tufts Medical Center and Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts [124]

++

 

++

Christy A. Varughese, PharmD

++

Infectious Disease Specialist, Department of Pharmacy, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [41]

++

 

++

Jiři F. P. Wagenaar, MD, PhD

++

Senior Scientist, WHO/FAO/OIE and National Leptospirosis Reference Centre, KIT Biomedical Research, KIT (Royal Tropical Institute), Amsterdam, The Netherlands [80]

++

 

++

Matthew K. Waldor, MD, PhD

++

Edward H. Kass Professor of Medicine, Channing Laboratory, Brigham and Women's Hospital; Harvard Medical School and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Boston, Massachusetts [65]

++

 

++

David H. Walker, MD

++

The Carmage and Martha Walls Distinguished University Chair in Tropical Diseases; Professor and Chairman, Department of Pathology; Executive Director, Center for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas [83]

++

 

++

Fred Wang, MD

++

Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [86, 92]

++

 

++

John W. Warren, MD

++

Professor of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland [34]

++

 

++

Robert A. Weinstein, MD

++

The C. Anderson Hedberg, MD Professor of Internal Medicine, Rush Medical College; Chief Academic Officer, Cook County Health and Hospitals System, Chicago, Illinois [17]

++

 

++

Peter F. Weller, MD

++

Chief, Infectious Disease Division; Chief, Allergy and Inflammation Division; Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts [129-133, 135]

++

 

++

Michael R. Wessels, MD

++

John F. Enders Professor of Pediatrics; Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Chief, Division of Infectious Diseases, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts [44]

++

 

++

L. Joseph Wheat, MD

++

President and Medical Director, MiraVista Diagnostics, LLC, Indianapolis, Indiana [111]

++

 

++

A. Clinton White, Jr., MD

++

Paul R. Stalnaker Distinguished Professor; Director, Infectious Disease Division, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas [135]

++

 

++

Nicholas J. White, DSc, MD, FRCP, F Med Sci, FRS

++

Professor of Tropical Medicine, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Mahidol-Oxford Research Unit, Bangkok, Thailand [123, 125]

++

 

++

Richard J. Whitley, MD

++

Distinguished Professor of Pediatrics; Loeb Eminent Scholar Chair in Pediatrics; Professor of Microbiology, Medicine and Neurosurgery, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama [89]

++

 

++

Charles M. Wiener, MD

++

Vice President of Academic Affairs, Johns Hopkins Medicine International, Professor of Medicine and Physiology, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland [Review and Self-Assessment]

++

 

++

Richard G. Wunderink, MD

++

Professor, Pulmonary and Critical Care, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois [21]

++

 

++

Lam Minh Yen, MD

++

Director, Tetanus Intensive Care Unit, Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam [49]

++

 

++

Victor L. Yu, MD

++

Professor of Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania [56]

++

 

++

Werner Zimmerli, MD

++

Professor of Medicine, Basel University; Interdisciplinary Unit of Orthopaedic Infection, Kantonspital Baselland, Liestal, Switzerland [28]

++

 

++

Laura A. Zimmerman, MPH

++

Epidemiologist, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia [103]

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