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  • ABCC8 ATP-binding cassette transporter sub-family C member 8
  • ACE Angiotensin-converting enzyme
  • ADA American Diabetes Association
  • ADHAntidiuretic hormone (vasopressin)
  • AGE Advanced glycation end product
  • AGPAT 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate-O-acyltransferase 2
  • AKT/PKB AKR mouse tumor 8 kinase/protein kinase B
  • AIRE Autoimmune regulator
  • ALT Alanine aminotransferase
  • AMPKAdenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase
  • APS1 Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy syndrome type 1
  • ATF6 Activating transcription factor 6
  • BMIy Body mass index
  • cAMP Cyclic adenosine monophosphate
  • CCK Cholecystokinin
  • CEL Carboxyl-ester lipase
  • cGMP Cyclic 3′,5′-guanosine monophosphate
  • CIDEC Cell death-inducing DFFA-like effector C
  • CSII Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion
  • CST Contraction stress test
  • DCCT Diabetes Control and Complications Trial
  • DIDMOAD Diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, deafness (Wolfram syndrome)
  • DPP Diabetes Prevention Program
  • DPP-4 Dipeptidyl peptidase 4
  • DPT-1 Diabetes Prevention Trial-1
  • EIF2AK3 Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2-α kinase 3
  • ER Endoplasmic reticulum
  • FDA Food and Drug Administration
  • FFA Free fatty acid
  • FHR Fetal heart rate
  • Foxo1 Forkhead box, subfamily O, member 1
  • FOXP3 Forkhead box, subfamily P, member 3
  • GABA Gamma-aminobutyric acid
  • GAD Glutamic acid decarboxylase
  • GCK Glucokinase
  • GHGrowth hormone
  • GHb Glycohemoglobin
  • GHSR Growth hormone-secretagogue receptor
  • GI Glycemic index
  • GIP Gastric inhibitory polypeptide
  • GLIS3 Glioma-associated oncogene homolog—similar 3
  • GLP-1Glucagon-like peptide-1
  • GLP-2 Glucagon-like peptide-2
  • GLUTGlucose transporter
  • GPCR G protein-coupled receptor
  • GRPP Glicentin-related polypeptide
  • GWAS Genome-wide association study
  • HDL High-density lipoprotein
  • HLA Human leukocyte antigen
  • HNF Hepatocyte nuclear factor
  • hPL Human placental lactogen
  • IA2 Insulinoma antigen 2
  • IAA Insulin autoantibody
  • IAPP Islet amyloid polypeptide
  • ICA Islet cell antibody
  • IFG Impaired fasting glucose
  • IGF-1 Insulin-like growth factor 1
  • IGT Impaired glucose tolerance
  • IL-6 Interleukin-6
  • INS Insulin
  • IP3 Inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate
  • IPEX Immunodysregulation polyendocrinopathy enteropathy, X-linked
  • IPF-1 Insulin promoter factor-1
  • IRE1 Inositol-requiring enzyme 1
  • IRS Insulin receptor substrate
  • ISL1 Islet transcription factor 1
  • IUGR Intrauterine growth restriction
  • KPD Ketosis prone diabetes
  • KCNJ11 Potassium inwardly-rectifying channel, subfamily J, member 11
  • Kir6.2 Potassium channel, inwardly- rectifying 6.2
  • LADA Latent autoimmune diabetes of adulthood
  • LBK1 Liver kinase B1
  • LDL Low-density lipoprotein
  • MAPK Mitogen-activated protein kinase
  • MODY Maturity-onset diabetes of the young
  • MHC Major histocompatibility complex
  • mTOR Mammalian target of rapamycin
  • NeuroD1 Neural differentiation factor 1
  • Neurog3 Neural genesis factor 3
  • NIH National Institutes of Health
  • NPH Neutral protamine hagedorn
  • NST Nonstress test
  • PAI-1 Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1
  • PAX4 Paired homeobox 4
  • PCSK Proprotein convertase, subtilisin/kexin
  • PDE5 Phosphodiesterase type 5
  • PDX1 Pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1
  • PERK Protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase
  • PGC1α PPAR gamma coactivator-1α
  • PNDM Permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus
  • POEMS Polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal gammopathy, and skin changes
  • PP Pancreatic polypeptide
  • PPAR Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor
  • PTF1A Pancreatic transcription factor 1α
  • PTP1b Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1b
  • RFX6 Regulatory factor X-6
  • RXR 9-cis-retinoic acid receptor
  • SCL19A2 Solute carrier family 19 (thiamine transporter), member 2
  • SOCS Suppressor of cytokine signaling
  • SREBP1c Sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c
  • SSTR Somatostatin receptor
  • SUR1Sulfonylurea receptor 1
  • TCF7L2 Transcription factor 7-like 2
  • TGF-a Transforming growth factor-β
  • TNDM Transient neonatal diabetes mellitus
  • TNF-α Tumor necrosis factor-α
  • UGDP University Group Diabetes Program
  • UKPDS United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study
  • VEGF Vascular endothelial growth factor
  • VLDL Very low ...

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