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Chapter 1. History and Scope of Toxicology

Which one of the following statements regarding toxicology is true?

a. Modern toxicology is concerned with the study of the adverse effects of chemicals on ancient forms of life.

b. Modern toxicology studies embrace principles from such disciplines as biochemistry, botany, chemistry, physiology, and physics.

c. Modern toxicology has its roots in the knowledge of plant and animal poisons, which predates recorded history and has been used to promote peace.

d. Modern toxicology studies the mechanisms by which inorganic chemicals produce advantageous as well as deleterious effects.

e. Modern toxicology is concerned with the study of chemicals in mammalian species.

Knowledge of the toxicology of poisonous agents was published earliest in the:

a. Ebers papyrus.

b. De Historia Plantarum.

c. De Materia Medica.

d. Lex Cornelia.

e. Treatise on Poisons and Their Antidotes.

Paracelsus, a physician-alchemist, formulated many revolutionary views that remain integral to the structure of toxicology, pharmacology, and therapeutics today. He focused on the primary toxic agent as a chemical entity and articulated the dose–response relation. Which one of the following statements is not attributable to Paracelsus?

a. Natural poisons are quick in their onset of actions.

b. Experimentation is essential in the examination of responses to chemicals.

c. One should make a distinction between the therapeutic and toxic properties of chemicals.

d. These properties are sometimes but not always indistinguishable except by dose.

e. One can ascertain a degree of specificity of chemicals and their therapeutic or toxic effects.

The art of toxicology requires years of experience to acquire, even though the knowledge base of facts may be learned more quickly. Which modern toxicologist is credited with saying that “you can be a toxicologist in two easy lesions, each of 10 years?”

a. Claude Bernard.

b. Rachel Carson.

c. Upton Sinclair.

d. Arnold Lehman.

e. Oswald Schmiedeberg.

Which of the following statements is correct?

a. Claude Bernard was a prolific scientist who trained over 120 students and published numerous contributions to the ...

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