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Chapter 4. Risk Assessment

Which of the following is NOT important in hazard identification?

a. structure–activity analysis.

b. in vitro tests.

c. animal bioassays.

d. susceptibility.

e. epidemiology.

The probability of an adverse outcome is defined as:

a. hazard.

b. exposure ratio.

c. risk.

d. susceptibility.

e. epidemiology.

The systematic scientific characterization of adverse health effects resulting from human exposure to hazardous agents is the definition of:

a. risk.

b. hazard control.

c. risk assessment.

d. risk communication.

e. risk estimate.

Which of the following is not an objective of risk management?

a. setting target levels for risk.

b. balancing risks and benefits.

c. calculating lethal dosages.

d. setting priorities for manufacturers.

e. estimating residual risks.

Which of the following is NOT a feature in the design of standard cancer bioassays?

a. more than one species.

b. both sexes.

c. near lifetime exposure.

d. approximately 50 animals per dose group.

e. same dose level for all groups.

Which of the following types of epidemiologic study is always retrospective?

a. cohort.

b. cross-sectional.

c. case–control.

d. longitudinal.

e. exploratory.

Which of the following is defined as the highest nonstatistically significant dose tested?

a. ED50

b. ED100


d. ADI.


Which of the following represents the dose below which no additional increase in response is observed?

a. ED10


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