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Chapter 24. Toxic Effects of Solvents and Vapors

Which of the following statements regarding solvents is FALSE?

a. Solvents can be absorbed from the GI tract and through the skin.

b. Equilibration of absorbed solvents/vapors occurs most quickly in the lungs.

c. Solvents are small molecules that lack charge.

d. Volatility of solvents increases with molecular weight.

e. Most solvents are refined from petroleum.

What is the route in which most solvents enter the environment?

a. chemical spills.

b. contamination of drinking water.

c. evaporation.

d. improper waste disposal.

e. wind.

All of the following statements are true EXCEPT:

a. Most solvents can pass freely through membranes by diffusion.

b. A solvent’s lipophilicity is important in determining its rate of dermal absorption.

c. Hydrophilic solvents have a relatively low blood:air partition coefficient.

d. Biotransformation of a lipophilic solvent can result in the production of a mutagenic compound.

e. Hepatic first-pass metabolism determines the amount of solvent absorbed in the GI tract.

Which of the following statements regarding age solvent toxicity is TRUE?

a. GI absorption is greater in adults than it is in children.

b. Polar solvents reach higher blood levels in the elderly than they do in children.

c. Children are always more susceptible to solvent toxicity than are adults.

d. Increased alveolar ventilation increases uptake of lipid-soluble solvents to a greater extent than water-soluble solvents.

e. Increased body fat percentage increases clearance of solvent chemicals.

Huffing gasoline can result in which of the following serious health problems?

a. renal failure.

b. pneumothorax.

c. Hodgkin’s disease.

d. encephalopathy.

e. thrombocytopenia.

Which of the following statements regarding benzene is FALSE?

a. High-level exposure to benzene could result in acute myelogenous leukemia (AML).

b. Gasoline vapor emissions and auto exhaust are the two main contributors to ...

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