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Chapter 27. Toxic Effects of Calories

Humans consume food to provide energy needed to

a. drive cellular functions including digestion, metabolism, pumping blood, nerve activity, and muscle contractions.

b. promote photosynthesis.

c. synthesize oxygen in the lungs.

d. prepare minerals for use in the body.

e. produce carbon dioxide to fuel body functions.

Neural control of energy balance

a. may be defined as the action of leptin on CNS function.

b. may be defined as the action of hypothalamic cholinergic control of appetite and hedonic control.

c. may involve a balance between food intake and energy expenditure.

d. may involve a balance between leptin’s action on orexigenic versus anorexigenic peptide expression.

e. may involve adrenocortical control of hepatic function.

Body composition may be assessed by

a. electrical impedance because lean mass has more water and greater conductivity than fat mass.

b. anthropometric analysis of the body mass index.

c. hydrodensitometry, which uses the density of the whole body and corrects for residual air in the lungs and GI tract to determine relative body fat.

d. nuclear magnetic resonance.

e. all of the above.

Ectopic fat deposition includes

a. adipose tissue.

b. skeletal muscle.

c. lungs.

d. heart.

e. GI tract.

Excess calories may be

a. stored as glucose in adipose tissue.

b. stored as triglycerides in CNS tissue.

c. stored as glycogen in CNS tissue.

d. stored as glycogen in the liver.

e. stored as triglycerides in the GI tract.

Metabolic syndrome is a constellation of actions including

a. typically results from elevated fasting glucose, increased HDL, and hypertension.

b. typically results from elevated fasting glucose, increased LDL, and hypertension.

c. typically results from elevated fasting glucose, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypotension.

d. typically results from elevated ...

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