Chapter 28. Nanotoxicology
Which of the following is not a nanoparticle?
Which of the following answers is not true regarding nanoparticles?
a. NPs can originate from natural sources including forest fires, volcanoes, and viruses.
b. NPs can originate from unintentional sources including internal combustion engines and electric motors.
c. NPs can originate from unintentional sources including ferritin and magnetotactic bacteria.
d. NPs can originate from intentional sources including carbon nanotubes and metal oxide nanoparticles.
e. NPs can originate from natural, and intentional and unintentional anthropogenic sources.
In contrast to larger particles >500 nm, nanoparticles
a. are highly likely to enter the body by dermal absorption.
b. are highly likely to enter the body through the respiratory tract.
c. are unlikely to adsorb to protein or lipid.
d. are efficiently removed from the lungs via mucociliary transport.
e. are not likely to undergo uptake and transport in sensory neurons.
Which of the following statements is NOT true?
a. Nanomaterials may be classified by geometry and chemistry.
b. Engineered nanomaterials include quantum dots, C-nanofiber array, and few-layer grapheme.
c. Agglomerates include primary particles held together by weak van der Waals forces.
d. Aggregates include primary particles held by strong chemical bonds.
e. Hydrodynamic diameter is unimportant in particle interactions.
Nanoparticles can exert toxicity by all of the following mechanisms except:
a. damage to DNA and chromosomes.
b. induction of oxidant stress.
c. interference with biotransformation enzyme activities.
d. activation of signaling pathways.
e. release of toxic metal ions from internalized NPs.
Biodistribution of nanoparticles may be influenced by
a. physicochemical properties such as plasma protein and respiratory tract mucus.
b. physicochemical properties such as surface size and chemistry.