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(Table 19-1) Animals mount both local and systemic responses to microbes that traverse their epithelial barriers and enter underlying tissues. Fever or hypothermia, leukocytosis or leukopenia, tachypnea, and tachycardia are cardinal signs of the systemic response. To date, attempts to devise precise definitions for the harmful systemic reaction to infection (“sepsis”) have not resulted in a clinically useful level of specificity, in part because the systemic responses to infection, trauma, and other major stresses can be so similar. In general, when an infectious etiology is proven or strongly suspected and the response results in hypofunction of uninfected organs, the term sepsis (or severe sepsis) should be used. Septic shock refers to sepsis accompanied by hypotension that cannot be corrected by the infusion of fluids.



Image not available. The systemic response to any class of microorganism can be harmful. Microbial invasion of the bloodstream is not essential because local inflammation can also elicit distant organ dysfunction and hypotension. In fact, blood cultures yield bacteria or fungi in only ~20–40% of cases of severe sepsis and 40–70% of cases of septic shock. In a prevalence study of 14,414 patients in intensive care units (ICUs) from 75 countries in 2007, 51% of patients were considered infected. Respiratory infection was most common (64%). Microbiologic results were positive in 70% of individuals considered infected; of the isolates, 62% were gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas species and Escherichia coli were most ...

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