Pneumonia is an infection of the pulmonary parenchyma. Despite being the cause of significant morbidity and mortality, pneumonia is often misdiagnosed, mistreated, and underestimated. In the past, pneumonia was typically classified as community-acquired (CAP), hospital-acquired (HAP), or ventilator-associated (VAP). Over the past two decades, however, some persons presenting with onset of pneumonia as outpatients have been found to be infected with the multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens previously associated with HAP. Factors responsible for this phenomenon include the development and widespread use of potent oral antibiotics, earlier transfer of patients out of acute-care hospitals to their homes or various lower-acuity facilities, increased use of outpatient IV antibiotic therapy, general aging of the population, and more extensive immunomodulatory therapies. The potential involvement of these MDR pathogens has led to a designation for a new category of pneumonia—health care–associated pneumonia (HCAP)—that is distinct from CAP. Conditions associated with HCAP and the likely pathogens are listed in Table 21-1.
++ Table Graphic Jump Location TABLE 21-1CLINICAL CONDITIONS ASSOCIATED WITH AND LIKELY PATHOGENS IN HEALTH CARE–ASSOCIATED PNEUMONIA ||Download (.pdf) TABLE 21-1 CLINICAL CONDITIONS ASSOCIATED WITH AND LIKELY PATHOGENS IN HEALTH CARE–ASSOCIATED PNEUMONIA
|CONDITION ||PATHOGEN |
|MRSA ||PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA ||ACINETOBACTER SPP. ||MDR ENTEROBACTERIACEAE |
|Hospitalization for ≥48 h ||√ ||√ ||√ ||√ |
|Hospitalization for ≥2 days in prior 3 months ||√ ||√ ||√ ||√ |
|Nursing home or extended-care-facility residence ||√ ||√ ||√ ||√ |
|Antibiotic therapy in preceding 3 months || ||√ || ||√ |
|Chronic dialysis ||√ || || || |
|Home infusion therapy ||√ || || || |
|Home wound care ||√ || || || |
|Family member with MDR infection ||√ || || ||√ |
Although the new classification system has been helpful in designing empirical antibiotic strategies, it is not without its disadvantages. Not all MDR pathogens are associated with all risk factors (Table 21-1). Moreover, HCAP is a distillation of multiple risk factors, and each patient must be considered individually. For example, the risk of infection with MDR pathogens for a nursing home resident who has dementia but can independently dress, ambulate, and eat is quite different from the risk for a patient who is in a chronic vegetative state with a tracheostomy and a percutaneous feeding tube in place. In addition, risk factors for MDR infection do not preclude the development of pneumonia caused by the usual CAP pathogens.
This chapter deals with pneumonia in patients who are not considered to be immunocompromised. Pneumonia in severely immunocompromised patients, some of whom overlap with the groups of patients considered in this chapter, warrants separate discussion (see Chaps. 15, 16, and 97).
Pneumonia results from the proliferation of microbial pathogens at the alveolar level and the host’s response to those pathogens. Microorganisms gain access to the lower respiratory tract in several ways. The most common is by aspiration from the oropharynx. Small-volume aspiration occurs frequently during sleep (especially in the ...