Neoplasms are diseases characterized by abnormal proliferation of cells. If the proliferating cells invade surrounding tissues, the resultant tumor is malignant; if they do not, it is benign. Some benign neoplasms may be fatal, including histologically benign brain tumors that grow and displace normal brain tissue in the confined space of the skull, and hepatocellular adenomas that rupture and cause bleeding into the peritoneal cavity. Some benign tumors such as intestinal polyps are considered premalignant lesions and confer a high risk of progression to malignancy. The term cancer usually implies a malignant tumor (malignancy), but refers also to brain tumors and some other benign neoplasms.
Cancers are classified according to their organ or tissue of origin (site or topography code) and histological features (morphology code). A number of classification schemes have been developed, the most recent and widely used of which appears in Chap. 2 of the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision (ICD-10), which is largely a topography code,1 and the International Classification of Diseases for Oncology, 3rd edition (ICD-O), which contains an expanded version of the topography code in ICD-9 as well as a detailed morphology code.2
Sources of Incidence and Mortality Rates
Mortality rates are calculated from death certificate records and population census data. Mortality rates from various countries have been compiled periodically.3 Cancer mortality rates for the United States are published by the United States' National Cancer Institute (NCI) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).4,5,6
Population-based cancer registries, which have been established in many countries, provide information on incidence rates. These have been compiled in Cancer in Five Continents, which is jointly published periodically by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and the International Association of Cancer Registries (IACR).7 The best source of cancer incidence rates for the United States is the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program of the NCI, which supports a network of 18 population-based cancer registries throughout the country. Results from this program are published annually and more detailed monographs are published periodically.8,9 Both incidence and mortality statistics for the United States are summarized for the lay public and published annually by the American Cancer Society.10
A North American Association of Central Cancer Registries (NAACCR) was established in 1987, and beginning in 1991 the CDC made funds available to individual states for cancer registration. The cost of collecting high-quality data on a sufficiently large proportion of all cases in a defined population is considerable; however, utilization of these data for research or cancer control purposes justifies cancer registration efforts.
Magnitude of the Cancer Problem
In the aggregate, cancer is second only to heart disease as a cause of death in the ...