Nanotechnology is the understanding and control of matter at nanoscale dimensions between approximately 1 and 100 nm, where unique phenomena enable novel applications.
Nanotoxicology can be defined as the study of adverse effects of nanomaterials on living organisms and the environment.
Surface properties are major determinants of biological reactivity due to high surface area, surface charge, dissolution and release of metal ions, and redox activity leading to generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS).
The respiratory tract is the major route for humans to exposure of nanomaterials.
Surface properties are major determinants of biological reactivity due to high surface area, surface charge, hydrophobicity and partitioning into lipid membranes, dissolution and release of metal ions, and redox activity.
Dosemetric defines a dose in terms of an inherent property (physical, chemical, reactivity, etc.)
Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) such as nanosilver, fullerenes, quantum dots, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), graphene-based materials, and metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) are continually emerging with potential for significant commercial applications in energy generation, environmental sensing and remediation, aerospace and defense, and medical diagnosis and therapy. Examples of nanoscale materials are depicted in Fig. 29–1.
Length scales for natural and synthetic structures (above) and some examples of engineered nanomaterials of varying size and shape (below).
Nanotechnology may be defined as the understanding and control of matter at the nanoscale at dimensions between approximately 1 and 100 nm, where unique phenomena enable novel applications. The continuing introduction of nanoscale materials into consumer products, such as TiO2 in sunscreen creams, antibacterial Ag in textiles, quantum dots in televisions, multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in sports equipment, together with increasing numbers of publications reporting toxic responses mostly observed in in vitro studies, has led to increasing concerns and more public awareness about potential adverse health effects.
Nanotoxicology studies the adverse effects of nanomaterials on living organisms and the environment. Nanotoxicology considers the impact of dose, dose rate (influenced by dosing method in vitro and in vivo), and dosimetry when assessing nanomaterial toxicity. The goals of nanotoxicology are to identify and characterize a hazard of ENMs for purposes of risk assessment for humans and the environment.
The Working Party of Manufactured Nanomaterials (WPMN) established by the Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) remains the leading international forum on regulatory policy and oversight for nanomaterials and addresses issues related to the risk assessment and risk management of nanomaterials regarding human and environmental health and safety. The WPMN comprises international governmental policymakers and subject matter experts including observers from environmental NGOs, unions, UN groups, the International Organization Standardization (ISO), and industry. Member countries have integrated nanomaterials into their chemical regulatory programs. Several jurisdictions have implemented information collections rules or registries for nanomaterials to acquire information on their prevalence and uses in commerce. ...